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Was the great African nation of Nubia
the source of the Gold used
in the "Ark of the Covenant"?

Nubians Carrying Gold tribute into Egypt
Tomb of Huy, New Kingdom Vizier,
during the Reign of Tutmosis lll


The period of the New Kingdom in Egypt was a golden era in the History of ancient Egypt.

The great personalities of this historic time frame recorded in Egyptian art and literature compare favorably with any personality in recorded history. The three most illustrious rulers of the New Kingdom being Tutmose III, Hatshepsut, and Akhenaten.

Portrait of Akhenaten

The 18th and 17th centuries BCE had seen the gradual occupation of the Egyptian Delta by immigrants called the Hyksos, or foreign princes. The exact origins of these foreigners is a debate among scholars of ancient Egypt however it was the New Kingdom Rulers who solidified the southern Kingdom in its trading and military alliances with Nubia enabling the New Kingdom Rulers to overcome and expel the Hyksos from the Delta starting with Ahmose I. The final decisive military campaign against the Hyksos was conducted by Tutmose III. The story of the Hyksos, their origins and their influences in Egyptian History is a story to long to be told here.

At this time in the history of Ancient Egypt there was a Renaissance of artisic expression highlighted by the Armana Period. The portrait of Nefertiti in the Berlin Museum is one of the classic portraitures of ancient Egypt.

Portait of Nefertiti restored in Photoshop

Portrait of Nefertiti from the Armana Period of Egyptian Art
This image has been restored
In photoshop

This portrait famous in all of the world for its beauty was created in Armana during the reign of Akhenaten. The richness of the art from this period is also represented by the artifacts from the Tomb of Tutenkamen which is the only tomb of a pharaoh found totally intact.

Semitic Nomads arrive in Egypt 1895 BCE

The historic sojourn of the Hebrews in Egypt began in the Hyksos period see: Timelines and Events of the Hebrew Sojourn.

The Hebrews living in Egypt during the sojourn would have had some exposure to this art and many may have been trained as craftsman and laborers in the classical schools of Egyptian art. In the story of Joseph in the old testament the Pharaoh mentioned that any Hebrews with particular talent should be brought to his attention so they could be given special training and promoted in their demonstrated skills.

What is important to realize is that the most common source of gold used in ancient Egypt at this time in history was derived from its trading association with Nubia. The very name Nubia means gold. The hyroglyphic symbol for gold in the language of ancient Egypt was also the root for the geographical place Nubia.

At this time in the history ancient Egypt was know to its diplomatic and trading partners as the source for uncountable amounts of gold, a seeming enviable reputation to have had and to occupy within the ancient world. The facts for this reputation have been verified by the interpretation of the Armana tables, the diplomatic letters and correspondence of the first monotheistic Egyptian pharaoh, Ankenaten. The golden treasures taken from the tomb of the New Kingdom Ruler Tutankhamen are also testimony for the splendor that this source of gold allowed the New kingdom artisans to create.

The golden treasures of Tutenkhamen's tomb are also a testament to the likely appearance of the "Ark of the Covenant" because, it is in Egyptian craft guilds that the artisans who built the ark would have learned their trade/craft prior to the Hebrew Exodus.

Craftsmen Guild Building Golden Shrines
illustrated in tomb of Rekhmire, New Kingdom

Ancient Egypt's Sources for Nubian Gold During the New Kingdom

Sources of Nubian Gold for ancient Egypt during the New Kingdom

Map showing the sources for Nubian Gold During the New Kingdom
and the time leading up to the Exodus

The map is from "Nubia: Corridor to Africa"
by William Yewdale Adams Princeton Univ. Press, 1977

See also the "Ark of the Covenant"

Ark of the Covenant

For further information about the Ark of the Covenant see:
Timelines and Events of the Hebrew Sojourn superimposed on a Historic Chronology of The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt in a Julian Ca lender

A selection of information collected about the Ark of the Covenant compiled by Gerald N. Shapiro 

Images and text Produced By Comstock Sculpture Studio for

Comstock Sculpture Studio
1201 West Thornton Parkway #313
Thornton C0. 80260 
Telephone (303) 657 9778



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